strongest Circassian diaspora
years that followed the Tsarist Russian invasion of Caucasus
in 1864, witnessed the deportation of circa 1.500.000 population
of Caucasian nations. Majority of the deportees have settled
at various provinces of the Ottoman Empire of the time.The deported
nationalities were Circassians, Ubıhs and Abkhazians from Western
Caucasus and Dagestanis, Chechens and Ossetians.There are today
circa 7 million Turkish citizens of Caucasian origin that have
settled at Marmara, Central-Anatolia, East-Anatolia and Black
Sea regions of Turkey.
Caucasians' new homeland have enabled them to be productive
and competent in economy, politics, government, education and
arts fields.They also did their best to preserve their Caucasian
customs and traditions. Full preservation of cultural identity
and language of origin, have been possible only in isolated
rural areas. Inescapable internal assimilation has taken place,
As in the case of the Ubykh language: last Ubykh speaker Mr.Tevfik
Esenç died in 1992.There are over 100 associations and foundations
founded by the people of North Caucasian origin in Turkey to
keep the Caucasian culture alive. These voluntary organizations
rally to inspire enthusiasm for the common purpose of solidarity.
Organize folk dances, engage in publishing the desire for independent
Caucasus where people can live in peace.
most fruitful activity of the Circassian culture was at the
Constitutional Period 1908-1918 of Ottoman History. Many associations
were founded, Circassian and Abkhazian alphabets in Arabic and
Latin characters were published. Books journals newspapers were
published. A school for girls in Circassian language at Besiktas
quarters of Istanbul was operative.Teachers, books, alphabets
were sent to Caucasus through these associations.
Bolshevik Revolution of 1917-1923 : White then Red Armies invasion
of Caucasus, have devastated the Country and ended The North
Caucasus Republic of May 11, 1918.
Pre 1950 period's cultural ideology's intolerance in Turkey,
was a period of cultural inaction for Circassians. Multi party
system of post WW II era, have enlarged the freedoms for associations
,whom eagerly worked ,but still unable to prevent the cultural
1990's have brought possibilities of communication with the
Caucasus, and many Circassians have visited and still furthering
their love for the Caucasus.